The Tokiwa International Victimology Institute Bibliography

User’s Manual

Authors:

Tsuyoshi Nemoto and Tomoko Onose

Tokiwa University 2008 

 

 

Part 1 The User’s Manual

 

What is the TIVIBIb?

 

What Does the Name “TIVIBib” Mean?

 

The Start…

 

The First Page …

 

Default

 

What is an Index?

 

What are Keywords?

 

Description of Bibliographical Details

 

How to Search the Bibliography for Documents?

 

How to use “Keyword Index”.

 

How to use “Author Index”

 

How to use “Title Search Word”.

 

How to use “Summary Search Word”.

 

How to use Multiple Searchwords

 

Part 2  Definitions of Keywords

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Tokiwa International Victimology Institute Bibliography

. What is the TIVIBIb?

TIVIBIb is a computerized victimological bibliography in form of a databank, containing retrievable information about publications (books and articles) in victimology.  The software is developed by the certified librarian and computer expert, Dipl. Bib. Martin Scholz, of the Rhineland University in Moenchengladbach, Germany, following the design of Prof. Dr. Kirchhoff

 

. What does the name “TIVIBib” mean?

The name of the databank has two parts: The first part is TIVI. TIVI is the name of the Tokiwa International Victimology Institute where the bibliography is maintained. While the databank was developed in Hochschule Niederrhein in Moenchengladbach, Germany, where the care of the        software still kept, is it is now run by the TIVI, Japan. The second part of the name TIVIBib is an abbreviation of  “bibliography”.  

 

. The Start….

The first page of TIVIBib opens automatically.

 

. The First Page …

Under the title bar with the two logos, the user finds two lines in light blue colors. 

In the first light blue line, there are 5 different buttons with these names (from left to right):

Authors Index

Keyword Index

Title Search Word

Summary Search Word

User’s Manual

The second line of the titles has the buttons for the different languages of the databank keywords. Each button gives you a different language: English, German, Japanese and Spanish

 

. Default

Default is “Authors Index”. In the corresponding window appears an

alphabetic list of author’s name, first the family name and then –

separated by a comma - the initial(s) of the given name(s).

 

. What is an Index?

The index - a word list – contains the works you can use to find the documents you search for. Author’s Index and Keyword’s Index are closed (you can use only what is offered), while Title Search Word and Summary Search Word are open (you are not restricted in what to use).

 

        

. What are Keywords?

Keywords are characteristic words that characterize the content of a document.  You use the keywords to retrieve the item.

Each book or article (item) has one or more keywords that describe the content of it. Keywords are given to the item by the author of the bibliography.  You cannot do that yourself – but you are free to invent Search Words in the title or in the summary.

 

. Description of Bibliographical Details:

In the following table, these details are described. The order in the table is the same order on the monitor that you get.

       

Bibliographical Details

Explanation of Details

First Author

Family name of the first author and initial(s) of given name(s)

Second Author

 

Title in original language

Title in the language in which the item is written

Title in English translation

 

In Journal

Only for articles in journals: Name of journal

Journal: volume

 

Journal: year

 

Journal: number/month

 

In reader-original language

The article is published in a reader this entry gives title of reader followed by name(s) of editor(s) with “(ed.)” or “(eds.)”

Monograph/reader: edition

Edition of the book

Monograph/reader: city

Place of publication: city, country

Monograph/reader: publisher

Name of publisher

Monograph/reader: year

 

Monograph/reader: page(s)

For monographs: number of page in the book.

For articles: first page-last page

Monograph/reader: series title

When the monograph is

Part of a series, you find here the name of the series

Language

 

Where available in Tokiwa

Location of the book in Tokiwa University

Exact signature

TIVI=TIVI library

MC=Media Center

External Library

If item is not in Tokiwa: Where it is available

ISSN or ISBN

ISSN= International Standard Series Number

ISBN= International Standard Book Number

Congress/conference report: title

If this book is a report of a congress, then you find here the name of the event

Congress/conference report: location, city, country

Here you find name of the venue, place and country

Congress/conference report:

Date of event

 

Congress/conference report:

organizer

 

Summary

Here you find an English summary

keywords

Here you find a list of keywords that are given to this monograph or article

 

 

 

 

Example:

We look for books that were edited by Winkel, F.W. . The first step is to retrieve the documents:

After clicking the search button, this result appears:

 

 

 

Click on the logo at the left side of the retrieved document. The result is given below:

 

1. Author

Baldry, A.C. (ed.)

2. Author

Winkel, F.W. (ed.)

 

Title in original language

Intimate partner violence prevention and intervention.: The risk assessment and management approach.

Monograph/reader: edition

1

Monograph/reader: city, country

New York, USA

Monograph/reader: publisher

Nova Science Publishers Inc.

Monograph/reader: year

2008

Monograph/reader: page(s)

216

Language

English

Where available in Tokiwa

KO

ISSN or ISBN

978-1-60021-858-3 (hardcover)

 

English Summary:

Risk assessment in intimate partner violence, based on the professional risk assessment approach SARA and its screening version B-SAFER. The book with 10 chapters examines the main area of risk assessment of violence (that is the process of identifying risk and protective factors for violence),looking at risk factors of the perpetrator as well at of the "vulnerability factors" of the victim. Most risk assessment instruments concentrate on reduction of violent recidivism (perpetrator). Risk management ( the process of preventing violence by influencing risk and protective factors)means intervening with the abuser and the victim to reduce risk. This book is to link risk assessment instruments to intervention programs which have been positively evaluated. Risk assessment and risk management have been controversially debated. Nevertheless, there is consensus that there are not causative factors but at best correlates. Negative factors and protective factors might have an influence on violent outcome but cannot be referred to as causing the outcome. In effect, violence risk assessment approach is related to risk assessment of recidivism and is related to medical risk assessment model. The actuarial approach based on the presence or absence of multiple risk factors (establishment of a minimum score) - but violence is dynamic, not static. Therefore risk factors need to be assessed dynamically and systematically (not simple added up). The clinical approach is based mainly on the assessor's practical and clinical experience. A structural professional judgment (SPJ) approach tries to rely on rigorously validated empirical studies but allows the assessor to make sense of the presence/absence in a dynamic way. This approach facilitates formal predictive validity studies of risk assessment and risk management instruments. In addition it enables more rigorous [policy assessments of specific intervention programs designed to reduce risk factors for violence. The leading schools in the development of the main instrument (SARA and its companion police version B-SAFER)contributed chapters to this book, aiming at theoretically sound and practically relevant contributions. The "victimological approach" means to understand what helps the victim reduce their risk of being (re)victimized? Is the psychological reaction of the victim to the victimization of any influence on the risk of revictimization? What are the vul;nerability factors that put a woman at higher risk of being (re)victimized? Chapter 1: Hart, S.D. discusses the nature of risk assessment in general and the limitations of the two main approaches, actuarial and professional judgment. His subject is violence in general: risk assessment is efficient and useful, despite limitations. Chapter 2: Kropp, R. describes the development of SARA and of B-SAFER (the version used by the police), illustrating the SPJ. Chapter 3: Belfrage, H. explains how the clinical tool SARA was transformed into the police version B-SAFER and gives result from ths Swedish project. Chapter 4: Watt, K. examines femicide. She describes risk factors related to perpetrator, victim and community. She looks at Fatality Review Teams (teams analyzing femicide cases to understand both interpersonal and multi- agency dynamics and developing policy to prevent femicide),using SARA as tool for assessing lethal violence. Chapter 5: Winkel, F.W. looks at victim related characteristics and coping strategies that can be used to identify victims most in need of support to reduce the potential risk stemming from PTSD. The SCANNER is developed as a tool for police in conjunction with B-SAFER to provide victims with specialized and tailored services, using risk factors and protective factors. A victimological study on impact of repeat victimization on victims (psychological well being, fear of crime)is presented. Prevention and managing strategies should identify the vulnerability factors and subsequent support to reduce re-victimization risk. Spousal Assault Broad Risk Assessment (SABRA) based on the B-SAFER and the SCANNER is introduced. Chapter 6: Baldry, A discusses the history of the short version of SARA employed in Italy, existing legislation and role of police in domestic violence in Italy: The police could perform court ordered risk assessments as screening tool for all cases of intimate violence. Chapter 7, Chatzifotiu, S. describes the use of SARA at an experimental level in
Greece. Chapter 8: Dutton, D. reviews the caveats about risk assessment in general and the limits of an approach like SARA.Adding up scores is not sufficient, equally important is the assessment of the dynamics in the history of violence in terms of changes over time as well of the search for other critical factors that might be relevant in one case and not in another. Chapter 9: Dutton, D. reviews cognitive behavioral treatment and finds several treatable components of offender abusiveness. He explains his treatment model. Chapter 10: Katz, J. discusses the therapist's response to client's (offender's) responsivity issues. Authors' Biographies. Exclusively English language references from p.181-201. Useful topical index.   Baldry, Anna Constanca (ed.) Winkel, Frans Willem (ed.) SARA = Spousal Assault Risk Assessment (developed by Hart and Kroop 2000) B-SAFER = Brief Spousal Assault Form for Evaluation of Risk (Kropp, Hart and Belfrage 2005) 

 

Subject

Assault

Subject

Clinical Study

Subject

Council of Europe, EP

Subject

Criminal Justice Syste

Subject

Danger Awareness

Subject

Domestic Violence

Subject

Fear of Crime

Subject

Greece

Subject

Intervention, Therapy

Subject

Italy

Subject

Methodology

Subject

Multiple Victimization, Repeat Vict

Subject

Personal Security

Subject

Personal Victimization

Subject

Prediction, Risk Assessment

Subject

Risk

Subject

Treatment of Victims

Subject

Woman Battering

Subject

Women as Victims, Female Victims

 

After this example, the different search possibilities are described.

 

. How to Search the Bibliography for Documents?

There are 4 possibilities.

Possibility 1

 “Keyword Index”

Possibility 2

“Author Index”

Possibility 3

  “TitleSearch Word”

Possibility 4

 “Summary Search Word ”

  

You can use different languages if you want to search:

1.      English

2.      German

3.      Japanese

4.      Spanish

You can choose the language you want to use by clicking on the language button. The language of the window changes accordingly.

 

The detailed descriptions of 4 possibilities follow:

1.   How to use “Keyword Index”.

Default is “Keyword Index”.  This Index gives a list of keywords in alphabetical order.

What is a keyword?

This bibliography contains bibliographical details of victimological publications. Publications may be books or articles. Each item has at least one keyword, and most often more keywords to describe the content.

How do you find a document or documents in the database using a keyword?

In the window “Keyword Index”, you pick out a keyword by clicking with the mouse on it (left mouse click once). After the click, the keyword is highlighted in blue. The selection is done.

Go with the mouse cursor on the “Search” button in the next line and click a left mouseclick.

The result is a window with the selected documents. These are all documents in the database which have this keyword. This list is in form of a table. Each row describes one document.. The headline tells you how many documents in the database were found with this keyword. The table has two columns: first you see a symbol Document Nr: 0940 which belongs to the document in this row.  In the second column, you find the name(s) of the author(s) and the title of this document.

Next, you chose the document you want to see. Point the mouse arrow on the symbol in front of row and click (1).

A window opens with the “document”. It is described in a table. The first column of the table gives the bibliographical details that describe the document. The second column gives the concrete description.

The third table shows you a summary which is a short description of the content of the document.

The last table gives you subject of the document.

 

2.   How to use “Author Index”

The “Author Index” is an alphabetical list of the family names (plus abbreviated given name(s) of the authors of a document. If you want to get all documents of the same author, you pick out the author’s name in the corresponding window. After the left click on it, the author’s name is highlighted in blue. If you click the “Search” button, you get a table with all the contributions that are from this author. If you want to see a specific document from this list, click on the symbol in front of it.

 

3.   How to use “Title Search Word”.

You can search for any single word in a title of a book or an article by using the “Title Search Word” option. 

First, click mouse left button on “Title Search Word”. You see a small window in which you can type the word you look for in the titles.

Second, move the mouse cursor on the blank window and type in the keyword(s) you are going to search for the title.

Third, go with the mouse cursor on the “Search” and click the left mouse button. The result is a list in a form of the table. The headline above the table tells you how many documents in the database were found with the keyword(s). The list gives all the documents in the database that have the word you looked for, in their title. In the column, you see a symbol Document Nr: 0940 which belongs to this document. In the second column, you find the name of the author and the title of this document. Each row describes one document.

Then, you choose the document you want to see. Point the mouse cursor on the symbol in front of the row and click the left mouse button. You see tables which are separated into four.

The first table tells you about the name of an author.

The second table has two columns. The first column of the table gives the bibliographical details that describe the document. The second column of the table gives the concrete description of the document.

      

 

4.   How to use “Summary Search Word”

If you click “Abstract keyword”, you start a search for a certain keyword in the “Summary” of the document. Type the keyword into blank space and click “Search”. The result is a list in a form of the table. The headline above the table tells you how many documents in the database were found with the keyword(s) in the summary. The list gives all the documents in the database that have the word you looked for, in their summaries. In the column, you see a symbol Document Nr: 0940 which belongs to this document. Then, you choose the document you want to see. Point the mouse cursor on the symbol in front of the row and click the left mouse button. You see the tables which are separated into four. The third column of table gives the summary of the document and you see the word you searched for.

 

The remaining buttons are self-explanatory.

 

5.   Document Retrieval with Multiple Keywords

 

Sometimes a search results in too many results. Then you can narrow down your search by using a second keyword (1) or one of the other installed alternatives (2).

 

1.

 

Please select keyword 1 with your mouse. Press Ctrl after highlighting the first keyword. The keyword is highlighted in blue as long as you keep Ctrl pressed.

 

Go now to keyword 2 and mouseclick it. You have now selected two keywords. They are kept selected as long as you keep the Ctrl-button pressed.

 

Then you can click the “Search” button and you will retrieve documents that have these two keywords.

If you want to remove a keyword from multiple keyword search order, then click this highlighted keyword again and it will disappear from the list.

 

2.

 

It is possible to use the mask on http://194.94.124.228/scripts/victimology/search.asp

 

This template looks like a table with four rows – the first three rows have two columns each, one of the columns – the left – has a little black hook in a blue field. If you click the hook, a drop down window offers you a menu with 5 alternatives: Choose at least two alternatives:

 

author” :      type the author’s name in the right empty cell

title”:                    type any word from the title in the right empty cell

abstract”:    type any word from the summary into the cell

keyword ”:            type any keyword into the empty cell

year”:                    type any year of publication you look for.

 

If you choose three times “keyword”, you can search for the documents that have the 3 keywords you selected.

 

After you typed in the words you are looking for, you have to decide whether you want an “and” or an “or” combination of the alternatives.

 

The fourth row of this template is self explanatory.

 

Part 2

Definitions of Keywords

 

The following table contains definitions for “keywords”. It also lists the English and the Japanese keywords.  

Column 1 contains the number of the keyword. Column 2 lists the keyword in English. The keywords have been translated into Japanese. The Kanji and  Kana writing are given in column 3 while column 4 shows the Romaji version.  In the TIVIBib you find only the Romaji keyword, not the kana or kanji version. Column 5 features a short definition of the keyword in English.

 

Table 1: Keywords of the TIVIBib (Numbers, English and Japanese, and Definitions.

 

 

2

Keyword

English

3

Keywords

Japanese

4

Keywords

Romaji

5

Definition

English

Abuse of Power

権力濫用

kenryoku ranyo_

 

Abuse of power that victimizes individuals or groups. Primarily political, but also administrative, economic, judicial, medical, military, or psychological power.

Accidents,

Traffic Accidents

事故、

交通事故

jiko, ko_tsu_jiko

A sudden, unexpected and surprising event in traffic, usually involving people, cars or other vehicles.

Administrative Aspects

行政面、

行政状況

gyo_seimen,

gyo_seijyo_kyo_

Item deals with aspects of administration of victim assistance organizations or public administration that somehow has effect on victims.

Africa

アフリカ

Afurika

 

Alcohol

アルコール

aruko_ru

 

Architectural Design

建築設計

kenchiku sekkei

Item deals with the way in which architecture influences victimization (environmental design).

Area Approach

地域研究

chiiki kenkyu_

Item deals with the relationship between victimological issue and geographical area (region or place), more general the environment

Argentina

アルゼンチン

Aruzenchin

 

Assault

暴行

bo_ko_

An attack on another person.

Attitudes of Victim

被害者の態度

higaisha no taido

A certain way of victim’s thinking or feeling towards something or someone. This way influences behavior.

Attribution

帰属

kizoku

The (intellectual mental) act of assigning a cause for something.

Australia

オーストラリア

O_sutoraria

 

Austria

オーストリア

O_sutoria

 

Avoidance Behavior

回避行動

kaihi ko_do_

Behavior that prevents something from happening.

Belgium

ベルギー

Berugi_

 

Brazil

ブラジル

Burajiru

 

Bullying

いじめ

ijime

Tyrant behavior causing unhappiness to others through harassment, assault or  coercion

Burglary

住居侵入窃盗

jyu_kyoshinnyu_setto_

Illegal entering of a building to commit a theft. Breaking and Entering

Bystander Intervention

第三者介入

daisansha kainyu_

Someone who watches what is happening and who gets involved (or not).

Canada

カナダ

Kanada

 

Captivity

監禁

kankin

The status of being physically detained

Child

児童

jido_

Usually someone younger than 14 years

Child Physical Abuse

身体的児童虐待

shintaiteki jido_gyakutai

Physical force against a child

Child Sexual Abuse

性的児童虐待

seiteki jido_gyakutai

 

Any sexual interaction with a child

Child Stealing

児童誘拐

jido_yuukai

A child is illegally taken away from its legal custodian

Child Witness

児童の証人

jido- no sho_nin

Child testifies in court

City

shi

 

Climate Change

気候変動

kikou hendou

 

Clinical Study

臨床研究

rinsho_ kenkyu_

Study on medical treatment or mental counseling

Comparative Study

比較研究

hikaku kenkyu_

Study compares different countries, cultures or groups.

Compensation( State)

被害者補償

higaisha hosho_

State payment to victims.

Concept of Victim

被害者の概念

higaisha no gainen

Theoretical text on victim

Conference, Symposia

会議、

シンポジウム

kaigi, shinpojiumu

A conference meeting. TIVI holds symposia every year on victimology such as “Raising the Global Standards for Victims” in 2008.

Control Group

制御群

seigyogun

The group in an experiment that is not subjected to the influence of the experimental variable. It is used to measure the effect of the experiment.

Cooperation of Victim

被害者の協力

higaisha no kyo_ryoku

Contributing behavior of victim.

Coping Behavior

コーピング行動

ko_pinguko_do_

Victim behavior after the victimization

Corporation as Victims

被害者団体

higaisha dantai

Victims are corporations, not human people.

Corrections and

Victimology

犯罪者矯正と被害者学

Hanzaishakyo_sei to higaishagaku

Victim issues in the administration of punishment

Cost Considerations

費用検討

hiyo_kento_

Financial aspects

Council of Europe, EP

ヨーロッパ評議会

yo_roppahyo_gikai

 

Counseling

カウンセリング

kaunseringu

Psychological verbal intervention

Court

裁判所、

法廷

saibansho,

ho_tei

 

Court Statistic

裁判所統計

saibansho to_kei

A collection of numerical information about courts

Credibility of Victim

被害者の信憑性

Higaisha no shinpyo_sei

The quality of victim has that makes people believe or trust.

Criminal Justice System

刑事司法制度

keijishihouseido

All parts of the organization that deals with crime, from police to prosecutor, court and prison.

Criminal Procedure

刑事訴訟

keijisosho_

The official or formal order in law that deal with crimes.

Crisis Center

危機センター

kikisenta_

A place used for victims to evacuate them from their dangerous situation.

Crisis Intervention

危機介入

Kikikainyu_

Involvement in victim’s difficult or dangerous situation in order to improve or help it.

Crisis, Crisis Theory

危機、

危機理論

kiki, kikiriron

A highly dangerous situation, an idea used to account for a highly dangerous situation.

Croatia,

former Yugoslavia

クロアチア(旧ユーゴスラビア)

Kuroachia(kyuuyu_gosurabia)

 

Czechoslovakia

チェコスロバキア

Chekosurobakia

 

Damage

損害

songai

Emotional, physical or financial negative consequence of victimization

Danger Awareness

危険に対する認識

kikennitaisuruninshiki

Knowledge or understanding that something harmful will happen.

Date Rape,

Intimate Victimization

デートレイプ、

親密関係で起こる被害

de_toreipu,

shinmitukankeideokoru higai

Victim experiences violent, sexually  unwanted contacts from people who know each other closely,  e.g. friends or family members

 

Declaration on Victims

被害者宣言

higaishasengen

1985 UN Declaration on Basic Principles of Justice (and related later UN instruments)

Defense Techniques

防御術

bo_gyojyutsu

Special way of fending off an attack.

Defensible Space

防御可能な空間

bo_gyokano_naku_kan

Item deals with the relationship of architecture, area and defense potentials against victimization.

Denmark

デンマーク

Denma_ku

 

Depersonalization of Victim

被害者の非人格化

higaisha no hijinkakuka

The victim is perceived void of all personal haracteristics and is treated as an object

Disaster

災害

saigai

Catastrophic extensive misfortune.

Domestic Violence

ドメスティック・バイオレンス

domesutikku baiorensu

Collective expression for violence in the family.

Drug Abuse

薬物乱用

yakubutsuranyo_

Deliberate use of illegal substances.

Eastern Europe

東ヨーロッパ

higashiyo-roppa

 

Economic Victimization

経済的被害

keizaitekihigai

 

Egypt

エジプト

ejiputo

 

Elderly Victims

高齢の被害者

kourei no higaisha

 

Emotional Consequences

感情的影響

kanjyo_tekieikyo_

Damage to feelings, perceptions or mental status of victim

England

イギリス

igirisu

 

European Union

欧州連合

oushu_rengou

 

Evaluation

評価

hyo_ka

Usually empirical research to check whether a program works successfully

Exhibitionism

露出症

rositsusho_

Display of genitals to make them seen

Extend of Victimization

被害拡大

higaikakudai

Incidence or Prevalence of Victimization

Family

家族

kazoku

 

Family of Victim

被害者の家族

higaisha no kazoku

 

Fear

不安

fuan

Feeling of irritation and anxiety caused by the presence or imminence of danger

Fear of Crime

犯罪の不安

hanzai no fuan

To be afraid or worried that crime will happen, status of this fear

Fines

罰金

bakkin

Punishment to pay money

Finland

フィンランド

finrando

 

Follow up Study

追跡研究

tsuisekikenkyu_

Second study of the problem to find out more about the study target

France

フランス

Furansu

 

Fraud

詐欺

sagi

Economic personal damage by tricking the victim.

Gay and Lesbian Victimization

同性愛の被害者

do_seiaisha no higai

 

Victims are lesbian and/or homosexual.

Genocide

集団虐殺、

ジェノサイド

syu_dangyakusatsu,

jenosaido

The systematic killing of most or all people from a national, ethnic, or religious group.

Germany FRG

ドイツ

Doitsu

 

Greece

ギリシャ

girisha

 

Group Violence

集団暴力

syu_danbo_ryoku

Violent behavior by several people  together.

Hate Activities

嫌悪活動

kenokatudo_

Damaging action motivated by feelings of hostility or animosity toward a victim (as a member of a group, not as individual)

Hidden Victimization, Dark Field

隠された被害、

暗視野

kakusaretahigai,

anshiya

Victimization not recorded by police

Historical Aspects

歴史的側面

rekishitekisokumen

Item deals with the chronological past.

Hit and Run Driving

ひき逃げ

hikinige

To flee after an accident without waiting for police

Homeless

ホームレス

ho_muresu

An individual who does not have a fixed, regular, nighttime residence.

Hostages

人質

hitojichi

Person held captive until demand is met.

Household Victimization

世帯の被害化

setai no higaika

A household, not an individual is the object of victimization

Human Rights

人権

jinken

The basic rights and freedoms

Human Trafficking

人身売買

Jinshinbaibai

Illegal trade (using certain coercive or deceptive means) of persons for exploitation.

Hungary

ハンガリー

Hangari_

 

Incest

近親相姦

kinshinso_kan

Sexual interactions between close family members

India

インド

indo

 

Injury

負傷

fusho_

Damage to a victim’s body or feelings.

Interaction During Victimization

被害下の相互関係

higaikanosougokankei

Mutual sending and receiving of messages during  victimization

International Actions

国際活動

kokusaikatsudo_

Systematic activity involving more than one country.

International Comparisons

国際比較

Kokusaihikaku

Process or result of comparing certain relevant facts in at least two countries.

Intervention, Therapy

介入、

療法

kainyu_

ryo_ho_

Planned activity to improve victim’s mental or physical health

Intimate Partner

親密なパートナー

Shinmitsuna pa_tona_

 

Iran

欧州連合

iran

 

Iraq

人身売買

iraku

 

Ireland

親密なパートナー

airurando

 

Israel

イスラエル

isuraeru

 

Italy

イタリア

itaria

 

Japan

日本

nihon

 

Journals, Newsletters

定期刊行物、

ニュースレター

teikikanko_butsu

nyu_sureta_

Magazines or bulletins, periodical publications

Juvenile Justice System

少年司法制度

sho_nenshiho_seido

Special Justice System for Minors

Juveniles

少年

sho_nen

Young persons who are not yet legally of (adult) age.

Korea

韓国

kankoku

 

Law Reform

and Victimology

法律改正と

被害者学

ho_ritsukaisei to higaishagaku

Item deals with the influence of victimology on law reform.

Legal Aspects

法律的側面

Ho_ritsutekisokumen

A particular part or feature of situation relating to law.

Life Style

生活様式、

ライフスタイル

seikatsuyo_shiki

raifusutairu

Theory in Victimology looking at the way of life of victims.

Literature Review, Bibliography

文献レビュー、図書目録

bunkenrebyu_ to toshomokuroku

 

Long Term Effects

長期的影響

cho_kitekieikyo_

Long lasting consequences of victimization.

Longitudinal Study

縦断(的)研究

jyu_dan(teki)kenkyu_

The study of a group of individuals at regular intervals over a relatively long period of time.

Male Victims

男性被害者

danseihigaisha

 

Mass Media

マスメディア

masumedia

Newspaper, magazines, radio and television and their relationship to victims and victimizations.

Mass Victimization

集団被害

syu_danhigai

 

Mediation

調停

cho_tei

Conciliation between victims and offenders.

Medical Care

医療

iryo_

Attentive assistance relating to practice of medicine.

Methodology

方法論

ho_ho_ron

A set of methods and principles used to perform a particular activity.

Mexico

メキシコ

mekishiko

 

Middle America

中南米

 

 

Migrants

労働出稼ぎ者

Roudou dekasegisha

 

Minorities, Ethnics

少数派、

民族学

sho_su_ha

minzokugaku

A group within a community with different national or cultural traditions compared to main population.

Motor Vehicle theft

車両の窃盗行為

sharyo_no setto_ko_i

Stealing of cars and motorcycles.

Mugging

路上強盗

rojyo_go_to_

An act of attacking someone in order to steal their money in a public place.

Multiple Victimization, Repeat Victimization

複数の被害、

反復被害

Fukusu_ no higai,

hanpukuhigai

 

Murder, Homicide

殺人

satsujin

The crime of killing someone deliberately.

Myths

神話

shinwa

A story from ancient times.

National Crime Survey

全国犯罪調査

zenkokuhanzaicho_sa

Victim Survey in a special country

National, State

国民、国

kokumin, kuni

 

Nazi Victimization,

Fascism

ナチ被害、

ファシズム

nachihigai,

fashizumu

Fascism: an extreme right-wing political ideology, Nazi is a member of the National  Socialist Party which controlled Germany from 1933 to 1945. 

Neighborhood

近所、

近所の人々

kinjyo, kinjyonohitobito

The area surrounding a particular place, person, or object.

Netherlands

オランダ

oranda

 

New Zealand

ニュージーランド

Nyu_jiirando

 

Nigeria

ナイジェリア

Nijeria

 

Northern Ireland

北アイルランド

kitaairurando

 

Norway

ノルウェー

Noru_xe_

 

Offender Characteristics

犯罪者の特徴

hanzaisha no tokucho_

Special information about offender

Official Statistics

公式の統計

ko_shiki no to_kei

A set of numbers collected by an official authority.

Organization as Victims

被害者としての組織

higaishatoshitenososhiki

Not individuals but corporations are victimized.

Organization of Victim Assistance

被害者支援組織

higaishasiensoshiki

Special organization to help victims.

Personal Security

個人的安全策

kojinteki anzensaku

Safety on an individual level

Personal Victimization

個人の被害

kojin no higai

Individuals are victimized

Physical Abuse

身体的虐待

sintaitekigyakutai

Assaults and Maltreatment

Physical Consequences

身体的影響

Shintaitekieikyo_

Damage to body or health of victim.

Poland

ポーランド

Po_rando

 

Police

警察

keisatsu

 

Police Attitude

警察の態度

keisatsu no taido

Beliefs and opinions typical for police.

Police Crime Statistics

警察犯罪統計

keisatuhanzaito_kei

Annual compilation of numerical information on police work in the field of crime investigation.

Police Investigation

警察捜査

keisatsuso_sa

Activity of police beginning with .the police record end ending with closing the case.

Police Notification

警察の通知

keisatu no tsu_chi

Information of police

Political Science

政治学

seijigaku

Study of politics, government and administration.

Pornography

ポルノ、

わいせつ文書

poruno,

waisetubunsho

Verbal or image degrading representation of sexual activities  to attract consumers by its degrading way.

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, PTSD

心的外傷後ストレス障害

shintekigaisho_gosutoresusho_

gai

Post traumatic Stress Disorder

Prediction,

Risk Assessment

危険予測、

リスクアセスメント

kikenyosoku,

risukuasesumento

Process of evaluation a potential hazard and forecasting the probability of such an event.

Press, Victimization by Media

報道機関、

メディアによる被害

ho_do_kikan,

medianiyoru higai

Damage by mass media, especially print media (newspapers).

Prevention

防止

bo_si

Stopping something before it happens.

Prison Victimization

刑務所被害

keimushohigai

Cruel or unjust victimizations in prison .

Process of Victimization

被害の過程

higai no katei

A series of action that leads to victimize someone.

Property Victimization

所有権被害

shoyu_kenhigai

Damage to things of tangible value (not emotions or physical harm)

Prosecutor

検事、

検察官

kenji, kensatsukan

 

Prostitution

売春

baisyun

Occupational sexual activity in exchange for money.

Psychiatric Aspects

精神医学の側面

seishinigaku no sokumen

Relating to mental illness or its treatment.

Psychological Consequences

心理的影響

shinritekieikyo_

The mental and emotional state after victimization .

PTSD, PTSS

心的外傷後ストレス障害

shintekigaisho_gosutoresusho_

gai

Post traumatic Stress Disorder,

Post Traumatic Stress Symptom.

Public Attitudes

一般大衆の意識

Ippantaisyu_ no ishiki

The way people’s general thinking or feeling    about victims and victimization influences behavior.

Public Order

社会秩序

Shakaichitujyo

A mix of peace keeping and structure in a community or a society to achieve or maintain stability.

Publics, Public Opinion

世論

seron

The beliefs or views of the people as a whole.

Purse Snatching

すり

suri

Stealing purse by seizing or grabbing suddenly. Pickpocket.

Rape

レイプ、

強姦

reipu

Forcing somebody to have sex by violence.

Rape Trauma Syndrome

レイプトラウマ症候群

reiputoraumashoko_gun

A severe mental condition characterized by a set of associated symptoms after rape.

Reaction of Family

家族の反応

Kazoku no hanno_

What family do, say, or think as a result of victimization that has happened to its member.

Reactions of

Environment

周囲の反応

shu_i_no hanno_

What the social environment does as a result of the victimization.

Reconciliation

和解

wakai

The restoration of peaceful or amicable relations between victims and offenders.

Refugees,

Displaced Persons

難民、

避難民

nanmin,

hinanmin

A person who has been forced to leave his or her country (refugee)or home (displaced person) .

Remedies of Victims

被害者救済

higaishakyu_sai

All legally open means to seek alleviations for victims.

Reporting Behavior of Victims

被害者の通報態度

higaisha no tsu_ho_taido

Personal dimensions of victims reporting an incident to police.

Restitution(Offender)

被害弁償(犯罪者)

higaibensho_

(hanzaisha)

 

Recompense for injury or loss of victims paid by offenders in criminal and civil law.

Restitution Programs

被害弁償プログラム

higaibensho_puroguramu

A plan of recompense for victims paid by offenders.

Restorative Justice

修復的司法

syu_fukutekisiho_

Justice that aims to repair damages.

Restraining Remedies

制限救済手段

seigenkyu_saisyudan

 

Measure to achieve safety by impeding dangerous movements (domestic violence, psychiatric hospital) .

Risk

危険、

リスク

kiken,

risuku

A person or thing that is likely to cause problems or danger at some time in the future.

Robbery

強盗

go_to_

Taking away with force from someone.

Routine activity

日常活動

nichijyo_katsudo_

RAT, Routine Activity Theory : different victimization probabilities are explained by re-occurring activities of the victim.

Russia, former USSR

ロシア(旧ソ連)

Roshia, kyu_soren

 

Sanctioning

制裁

seisai

Sentencing offenders

Scotland

スコットランド

Sukottorando

 

Secondary Victimization

二次被害

nijihigai

The damaging reaction of others to the primary victimization.

Security Measures of Enterprises

企業の安全対策

kigyo_ no anzentaisaku

Steps of corporation to prevent damages.

Severity of Victimization

被害の重大性

higai no jyu_daisei

Seriousness of damage to victim.

Sexual Abuse

性的虐待

seitekigyakutai

Unwanted illicit sexual interaction.

Sexual Aggression

性的侵害

seitekishingai

Unwanted illicit sexual interaction under the aspect of aggression.

Sexual Molestation

性的いたずら、痴漢行為

seitekiitazura,

chikanko_i

Unwanted illicit sexual interaction under the aspect of molestation

Sexual Norm Violation

性的規範の侵害

seitekikihan no shingai

Unwanted illicit sexual interaction under the aspect of violation of social or legal norms

Sexual Victimization

性的被害

seitekihigai

Unwanted illicit sexual interaction from victim’ perspective

Shock

精神的打撃

ショック

seisintekidageki,

shokku

A feeling of disturbed surprise resulting from a sudden upsetting event.

Slovenia

スロベニア

surobenia

 

Social Movement

社会運動

shakaiunndo_

A group activity to achieve social change

Social Status

社会的地位

shakaitekichii

Position according to social reputation

Social Work

社会(福祉)事業

shakai(fukushi)jigyo_

Activities and institution of Social Control in direction of powerless as well of the powerlful

Social Reactions

社会的反応

shakaitekihanno_

Collective positive or negative answers to an event

South Africa

南アフリカ

minamiafurika

 

Spain

スペイン

supein

 

Stalking

ストーカー行為

suto_ka_ko_i

To be after a victim against his/her will, following and watching somebody over a longer period of time in an at least unwelcome way

State, Nation

国家、国、国民

kokka, kuni, kokumin

 

Stereotypes

固定観念

koteikannen

A often preconceived fixed perception that people have.

Street Crimes

路上犯罪

rojyo_hanzai

Crimes committed on the street.

Sweden

スウェーデン

Su_xe_den

 

Switzerland

スイス

Suisu

 

Syndrome

症候群

シンドローム

sho_ko_gun,

sindoro_mu

A collection of typical signs or indicators.

Taiwan

台湾

Taiwan

 

Telephone Alert System

電話警告システム

denwakeikokushisutemu

An always available emergency notification system by phone.

Telephone Survey

電話アンケート、

電話調査

denwaanke_to,

denwacho_sa

Data gathering by telephone interviews.

Terrorism

テロ

tero

Activity to induce fear and disorganization among many people.

Tests,

Research Instruments

検査、

研究の道具

kensa,

kenkyu_no do_gu

Description of empirical research instruments (e.g. questionnaires).

Theft

窃盗

setto_

Unauthorized taking away of things.

Theoretical problems

理論的問題

rirontekimondai

Contribution to victimological theory.

Time Series

時系列

jikeiretsu

Investigation in chronological sequences.

Torture

拷問

go_mon

Causing intentionally pain.

Traffic Safety

交通安全

ko_tsu_anzen

All means to secure safe traffic.

Trafficking,

Human Trafficking

人身売買

jinshinbaibai

Illegal trade (using certain coercive or deceptive means) of persons for exploitation.

Training, Education

訓練、トレーニング、教育

kunren, tore_ningu,

kyo_iku

Planned activity to instruct someone in a certain field.

Treatment of Offenders

犯罪者の処置

hanzaisha no shochi

Management / therapy of offenders.

Treatment of Victims

被害者の処置

higaisha no shochi

Management / therapy for victims. 

Types of Resistance

抵抗の種類

teiko_no syurui

Kind of fighting off invasions, victimizations.

Typologies

類型学

ruikeigaku

System of classification.

UN Victim Declaration

国連被害者宣言

kokurenhigaishasengen

 

United Nations

国際連合

kokusairendo_

 

USA

アメリカ合衆国

Amerikagassyu_koku

 

Vandalism

公共物破壊

ko_kyo_butsuhakai

Willful random destruction of property .

Vicarious Victimization, Transference

代償被害、

転移

daisho_higai,

teni

Victimization of helping professionals during the  process of helping (treatment).

Victim-Offender Relationship

被害者と犯罪者の関係

higaisha to hanzaisha no kankei

Connection between victim and offenders.

Victim Assistance

被害者支援

higaishashien

All organized means to assist victims.

Victim Assistance Programs

被害者支援プログラム

higaishashien puroguramu

Institutionalized organized planned means to assist victims.

Victim Behavior

被害者の行動

higaisha no ko_do_

Typical actions (before), during and after victimization.

Victim Characteristics

被害者の特徴

higaisha no tokucho

Typical features of victims.

Victim Contribution

被害者の寄与

higaisha no kiyo

Active part of the victim in the event.

Victim Movement

被害者活動

higaisha katsudou

 

Victim Needs

被害者のニーズ

higaisha no ni_zu

Something required or wanted by victims.

Victim precipitation

被害の第一段階

higai no daiichidankai

Active first step of victim in a sequence that leads to victimization.

Victim Provocation

被害者の誘発

higaisha no yu_hatsu

Victim calls for the event that victimized.

Victim Rights

被害者の権利

higaisha no kenri

Legal Positions intended to favor victims.

Victim Survey

被害者調査

higaishacho_sa

Data collection on victims.

Victimization

被害、被害化

higai, higaika

 

Victimization Rates

被害率

higairitsu

Number of victimization referred to a certain base line.

Victimless Crimes

被害者無き犯罪

higaishanakihanzai                         

Crimes without an immediate                                                                                direct victim.

Victimo- Dogmatics

被害教義学

higaikyo_gigaku

The influence of victim issues on the dogmatics of criminal law.

Victimology – Science, Definition

被害者学、

科学、定義

higaishagaku, kagaku, teigi

Theory of Victimology: Who is a victim.

Victims as Offenders

犯罪者としての被害者

hanzaishatoshitenohigaisha

Double aspect of a person as victim as well as offender.

Violence

暴力

bo_ryoku

Application of (physical) pressure to overcome a                            n actual or potential resistance.

Volunteers

ボランティア

borantia

Active in social work without remuneration.

War Victims

戦争の被害者

senso_ no higaisha

Victims of (usually) international armed conflicts.

Witness

証拠、証言

sho_ko, sho_gen

Personal evidence in court proceedings.

Woman Battering

女性虐待

jyoseigyakutai

Hitting of females.

Women as Victims, Female Victims

女性被害者

jyoseihigaisha

 

Women’s Movement, Feminism

女性運動、

フェミニズム

jyoseiundo_,

feminizumu

World view and activism that centers on the special (oppressed) role of women in society.

Women’s Shelter

女性のシェルター

jyosei no sheruta-

Refuge (safe heaven) for female victims of domestic violence.

Workplace Victimization

職場での被害

 

shokuba deno higai

Victimization on the place of work.

World Society of Victimology

世界被害者学会  

sekaihigaishagakkai

 

 

The transcript from Japanese into Romaji follows the online dictionary on http://www.dicts.info/2/english-japanese_romaji.php retrieved on December 5, 2008